Appendix 1: Summary of the Findings of the Wound Ballistics Board, 1904
(In reference to the ballistic superiority of the .45ACP cartridge over 9mm cartridges)
"For personal encounters in self defense, it is useless to carry anything but an effective weapon. At war with savage tribes or a fanatical enemy, a military man seeks to arm his soldiers with a rifle that delivers projectiles with a telling effect. A fanatic like a Moro wielding a bolo in each hand who advances with leaps and bounds and who never knows when he is hit until he is shot down must be hit with a projectile having a maximum amount of stopping power. Again, the military man has to reckon upon the stopping power of projectiles against cavalry and artillery horses in a charge."
" Colonels Thompson and LaGarde experimented with 10 different projectiles, ranging in weight from 6 to 18.7 grams, in diameter from 7.65 to 12 millimeters, and in energy from 259 to 563 joules. The firing tests were conducted against 10 human cadavers, 16 steers and 2 horses. Colonel Thompson did the shooting at the corpses, which were suspended by their necks. The impact of the projectiles on the free swinging bodies was used to evaluate their shock effect. After the shooting, Colonel LaGarde carried out the necessary dissections to examine the wounds. X-ray photography done by Doctors A. Hewson and W.M. Sweet of Philadelphia aided LaGarde in his analysis. Shooting took place at 0, 35, and 68.5 meters.
From their experiments on the cadavers at the Philadelphia Polyclinic, they drew the following conclusions. First, in skull wounds, the small, high-velocity, jacketed bullets had a more explosive effect than the larger, slower lead bullets. But in either case, the wounds would be fatal, whether the large, lead projectile lodged in the brain, or the Parabellum projectile passed through it taking half the skull with it. Second, in all bony structures except the head, the fractures caused by the unjacketed, low velocity, lead bullets were more serious than the clean perforations made by the Parabellum bullets. Third, based upon body oscillation, the large-caliber, blunt-nosed, lead bullets exerted a greater smashing force upon impact. These projectiles tended to stop in the body, while the higher-velocity, jacketed ones usually passed through. Finally, there was very little deformation of the bullet types, lead or jacketed, as a result of entering the human body.
Although the data gathered from these experiments tended to favor the large, unjacketed projectiles as man-stoppers, Thompson and LaGarde also wanted to shoot at living tissue to determine the effects of the ten projectiles. For this phase of the investigation, the went to the Nelson Morris slaughterhouse at the Chicago Stockyards. An army sergeant who was an expert pistol shot was assigned the duty of shooting at steers in their lung and intestinal cavities. None of the steers appeared to be seriously affected by the 7.65mm or 9mm Parabellum rounds. After ten shots from each, the steer would still be standing and apparently unaffected. The .38 caliber Colt cartridges (jacketed and unjacketed) had greater effect. Four or five shots from the .45 caliber colt revolver brought the animal down, while with the .455 and .476 projectiles three or four shots were required. These large bullets caused the animals to hemorrhage as well. LaGarde commented on these tests.
'The failure on the part of the automatic pistols of small caliber set at rest at once the claims of the makers to the effect that the superior energy and velocity of their weapons was a controlling factor in stopping power. The Board was of the opinion that a bullet which will have the shock effect and stopping power at short ranges necessary for a military pistol or revolver should have a caliber not less than .45 it [a bullet] leaves its energy in the body in proportion to the amount of metal which it deposits in the foyer of fracture. When it lodges entirely, it parts with all of its remaining energy.'
Thus, militarily, the best projectile was one that entered the target and stopped; the .45 caliber bullet met this criteria." (Ezell, 283-284)